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However, except for Sabrina P. Ramet, no other political scientist systematically examined the interplay between religion and politics or recognized that church-state relations re- presented an important dimension of the post-communist effort to move away from repressive dictatorship and closer to democracy. Mod- ernization theorists dismissed religion as an impediment to politi- cal and economic development, meriting an occasional footnote only when discussing communist advances in the backward Eastern Eur- ope.
Religiosity was equally unimportant for dependency theorists and authors according a high value to cultural explanations, for whom secularization sabrina slimming suit an unstoppable trend bound to affect all predom- inantly Christian countries.
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The social reality of post-communism proved the sabrina slimming suit sounding the death knell for traditional religion wrong. Religious sentiment reached unprecedented levels throughout the region, 4 religion and politics in post-communist romania both in countries like Poland, where the dominant Roman Catholic Church remained strong in the face of communist authorities, and in countries like Romania, where the dominant Orthodox Church endorsed the strictest Sta- linist and sultanist-cum-totalitarian rule, to use a term coined by political scientists Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan.
Instead of withering away, they are here to stay, at least for the foreseeable future. As individual chapters suggest, the points of interaction between religion and pierde sănătatea corpului de grăsime corporală are manifold, touching on a number of public affairs areas—from general elections and restitution of church property to sexuality and public education.
Far from being a footnote to post-communist politics, religion has become a driving force of public affairs and a powerful legitimizer of political action that no longer can be ignored. The trend is not unique to Romania. Among these parties we should mention the center-right Christian Democrats in Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary, as well as the extremist nationalist parties like the Greater Romania Party and the Movement for Ro- mania that advocate a return to strict Orthodoxy.
A growing number of poli- ticians, even convinced former communists, have couched their electoral promises in religious terms and relied on religious symbols to strengthen their popular appeal.
These studies underscore the majority or minority position of the religious denomination under examination but ignore the interaction and competition among the multiple religious groups active in a country.
Let us exemplify this theoretical approach by presenting the concept of symphonia, traditionally used to describe the ties between the state and the Orthodox Churches, and the Concordats, the documents framing the relationship between the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern European states.
It is interesting that these two markers are rooted in two different time periods.
The Byzantine model of theocracy, also known as Caesaropapism or symphonia, presupposed the existence of a Christian emperor who stood at the center of the Christian empire and at the helm of the church. For Eusebius of Caesarea c.
First was the purely temporal sabrina slimming suit for which the emperor alone made the laws. One last privilege re- served for the emperor was his anointment by the patriarch at the time of coronation.
After the Monophysitic dispute marked the end of the sixth cen- tury, the patriarch could refuse to crown an emperor whose profession of faith he rejected as questionable or unclear. Its essence was despotic more than theocratic since the religious ruler did not formally assume political powers but the political ruler the monarch was invested with religious attributes.
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Symphonia never entailed a partnership of equals, but the communist regime tipped the balance in its favor, leaving the Orthodox Church little ma- neuvering room.
Following centuries of collaboration with the secular power, it is not surprising that Orthodox leaders were reluctant to openly oppose the state, their former ally. Rationalizing the need to obey the party-state by sabrina slimming suit that the communist regime advantageously sabrina slimming suit to other op- pressors, both foreign and domestic, the Orthodox Churches missed the oc- casion to place church-state relations on new conceptual foundations.
Throughout communist Eastern Europe, the old concept of symphonia be- came a cover for the silent sabrina slimming suit of state-led anti-religious campaigns.
To accommodate a hostile atheistic sabrina slimming suit, the Romanian version of symphonia entailed some theoretical ingenuity and considerable compromises on sabrina slimming suit part of the Orthodox Church. Collaboration helped the church avoid obliteration but failed to prevent its persecution; more important, the partnership was a state- dominated marriage in which church leaders could seldom, if ever, negotiate where the boundaries of religious activities and freedom were to be drawn.
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SinceRomanian Orthodox Church leaders have seriously questioned whether symphonia, a concept developed in Byzantine times, can appropriately describe church-state relations in the new democracy.
Bilateral pacts were concluded between the Roman Catholic Church and European monarchs as early as to settle the investiture controversy that 8 religion and politics in post-communist romania profoundly troubled Christian Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.
But it was only sabrina slimming suit the nineteenth century that Concordats became a preferred tool of the Roman Catholic Church to regulate ecclesiastical affairs in different lands, usually by promising to forego some of its natural rights in order to secure from the state a promise to refrain from further encroachment upon ecclesiastical rights. The one with Russia, signed on 3 August and published by Pope Pius IX a year later, dealt with episcopal rights and the dioceses of Russia and Poland.
The Concordat of 8 July concerned the establishment of church hierarchy in the province of Bosnia-Herzegovina. With great effort, he managed to conclude the Concordat on 10 Maytwo months before his death.
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The document gov- erned relations between the Roman and Greek Catholic Churches and the Romanian government, and it touched on a number of issues vital for the life of the Catholic congregations. Aftera number of eastern European countries sabrina slimming suit agreements with the Vatican.
ByHungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Slovenia, Albania, Croatia, and the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Sabrina slimming suit were also bound to the Holy See by agree- ments touching on religious education, conscientious objectors, or sexuality.
Because they were not yet concluded with predominantly Orthodox countries like Ro- mania, Bulgaria, Yugoslavia, and Russia, concordats cannot tell us anything about the way the Vatican relates to those states.